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'''
Provides the core API for Cheetah.

See the docstring in the Template class and the Users'
Guide for more information
'''

################################################################################
## DEPENDENCIES
import sys                        # used in the error handling code
import re                         # used to define the internal delims regex
import logging
import string
import os.path
import time                       # used in the cache refresh code
from random import randrange
import imp
import inspect
import StringIO
import traceback
import pprint
import cgi                # Used by .webInput() if the template is a CGI script.
import types
   
try:
    from threading import Lock
except ImportError:
    class Lock:
        def acquire(self):
            pass
        def release(self):
            pass

filetype = None

if isinstance(sys.version_info[:], tuple):
    # Python 2.xx
    filetype = types.FileType
    def createMethod(func, cls):
        return types.MethodType(func, None, cls)
else:
    import io
    filetype = io.IOBase
    def createMethod(func, cls):
        return types.MethodType(func, cls)



from Cheetah.Version import convertVersionStringToTuple, MinCompatibleVersionTuple
from Cheetah.Version import MinCompatibleVersion
# Base classes for Template
from Cheetah.Servlet import Servlet                
# More intra-package imports ...
from Cheetah.Parser import ParseError, SourceReader
from Cheetah.Compiler import Compiler, DEFAULT_COMPILER_SETTINGS
from Cheetah import ErrorCatchers              # for placeholder tags
from Cheetah import Filters                    # the output filters
from Cheetah.convertTmplPathToModuleName import convertTmplPathToModuleName

from Cheetah.Utils.Misc import checkKeywords     # Used in Template.__init__
from Cheetah.Utils.Indenter import Indenter      # Used in Template.__init__ and for
                                                 # placeholders
from Cheetah.NameMapper import NotFound, valueFromSearchList
from Cheetah.CacheStore import MemoryCacheStore, MemcachedCacheStore
from Cheetah.CacheRegion import CacheRegion
from Cheetah.Utils.WebInputMixin import _Converter, _lookup, NonNumericInputError

from Cheetah.Unspecified import Unspecified

# Decide whether to use the file modification time in file'
s cache key
__checkFileMtime = True
def checkFileMtime(value):
    globals()['__checkFileMtime'] = value

class Error(Exception):
    pass
class PreprocessError(Error):
    pass

def hashList(l):
    hashedList = []
    for v in l:
        if isinstance(v, dict):
            v = hashDict(v)
        elif isinstance(v, list):
            v = hashList(v)
        hashedList.append(v)
    return hash(tuple(hashedList))

def hashDict(d):
    items = sorted(d.items())
    hashedList = []
    for k, v in items:
        if isinstance(v, dict):
            v = hashDict(v)
        elif isinstance(v, list):
            v = hashList(v)
        hashedList.append((k, v))
    return hash(tuple(hashedList))


################################################################################
## MODULE GLOBALS AND CONSTANTS

def _genUniqueModuleName(baseModuleName):
    """The calling code is responsible for concurrency locking.
    """

    if baseModuleName not in sys.modules:
        finalName = baseModuleName
    else:
        finalName = ('cheetah_%s_%s_%s'%(baseModuleName,
                                         str(time.time()).replace('.', '_'),
                                         str(randrange(10000, 99999))))
    return finalName

# Cache of a cgi.FieldStorage() instance, maintained by .webInput().
# This is only relavent to templates used as CGI scripts.
_formUsedByWebInput = None

def updateLinecache(filename, src):
    import linecache
    size = len(src)
    mtime = time.time()
    lines = src.splitlines()
    fullname = filename
    linecache.cache[filename] = size, mtime, lines, fullname

class CompileCacheItem(object):
    pass

class TemplatePreprocessor(object):
    '''
    This is used with the preprocessors argument to Template.compile().

    See the docstring for Template.compile

    ** Preprocessors are an advanced topic **
    '
''
   
    def __init__(self, settings):
        self._settings = settings

    def preprocess(self, source, file):
        """Create an intermediate template and return the source code
        it outputs                
        """

        settings = self._settings
        if not source: # @@TR: this needs improving
            if isinstance(file, (str, unicode)): # it's a filename.
                f = open(file)
                source = f.read()
                f.close()
            elif hasattr(file, 'read'):
                source = file.read()
            file = None        

        templateAPIClass = settings.templateAPIClass
        possibleKwArgs = [
            arg for arg in
            inspect.getargs(templateAPIClass.compile.im_func.func_code)[0]
            if arg not in ('klass', 'source', 'file',)]

        compileKwArgs = {}
        for arg in possibleKwArgs:
            if hasattr(settings, arg):
                compileKwArgs[arg] = getattr(settings, arg)

        tmplClass = templateAPIClass.compile(source=source, file=file, **compileKwArgs)
        tmplInstance = tmplClass(**settings.templateInitArgs)
        outputSource = settings.outputTransformer(tmplInstance)
        outputFile = None
        return outputSource, outputFile
       
class Template(Servlet):
    '''
    This class provides a) methods used by templates at runtime and b)
    methods for compiling Cheetah source code into template classes.

    This documentation assumes you already know Python and the basics of object
    oriented programming.  If you don'
t know Python, see the sections of the
    Cheetah Users' Guide for non-programmers.  It also assumes you have read
    about Cheetah'
s syntax in the Users' Guide.

    The following explains how to use Cheetah from within Python programs or via
    the interpreter. If you statically compile your templates on the command
    line using the '
cheetah' script, this is not relevant to you. Statically
    compiled Cheetah template modules/classes (e.g. myTemplate.py:
    MyTemplateClasss) are just like any other Python module or class. Also note,
    most Python web frameworks (Webware, Aquarium, mod_python, Turbogears,
    CherryPy, Quixote, etc.) provide plugins that handle Cheetah compilation for
    you.

    There are several possible usage patterns:          
       1) tclass = Template.compile(src)
          t1 = tclass() # or tclass(namespaces=[namespace,...])
          t2 = tclass() # or tclass(namespaces=[namespace2,...])
          outputStr = str(t1) # or outputStr = t1.aMethodYouDefined()

          Template.compile provides a rich and very flexible API via its
          optional arguments so there are many possible variations of this
          pattern.  One example is:
            tclass = Template.compile('
hello $name from $caller', baseclass=dict)
            print tclass(name='
world', caller='me')
          See the Template.compile() docstring for more details.  

       2) tmplInstance = Template(src)
             # or Template(src, namespaces=[namespace,...])
          outputStr = str(tmplInstance) # or outputStr = tmplInstance.aMethodYouDefined(...args...)

    Notes on the usage patterns:
   
       usage pattern 1)      
          This is the most flexible, but it is slightly more verbose unless you
          write a wrapper function to hide the plumbing.  Under the hood, all
          other usage patterns are based on this approach.  Templates compiled
          this way can #extend (subclass) any Python baseclass: old-style or
          new-style (based on object or a builtin type).

       usage pattern 2)
          This was Cheetah'
s original usage pattern.  It returns an instance,
          but you can still access the generated class via
          tmplInstance.__class__.  If you want to use several different
          namespace 'searchLists' with a single template source definition,
          you're better off with Template.compile (1).

          Limitations (use pattern 1 instead):
           - Templates compiled this way can only #extend subclasses of the
             new-style '
object' baseclass.  Cheetah.Template is a subclass of
             '
object'.  You also can not #extend dict, list, or other builtin
             types.  
           - If your template baseclass'
__init__ constructor expects args there
             is currently no way to pass them in.

    If you need to subclass a dynamically compiled Cheetah class, do something like this:
        from Cheetah.Template import Template
        T1 = Template.compile('$meth1 #def meth1: this is meth1 in T1')
        T2 = Template.compile('#implements meth1\nthis is meth1 redefined in T2', baseclass=T1)
        print T1, T1()
        print T2, T2()


    Note about class and instance attribute names:
      Attributes used by Cheetah have a special prefix to avoid confusion with
      the attributes of the templates themselves or those of template
      baseclasses.
     
      Class attributes which are used in class methods look like this:
          klass._CHEETAH_useCompilationCache (_CHEETAH_xxx)

      Instance attributes look like this:
          klass._CHEETAH__globalSetVars (_CHEETAH__xxx with 2 underscores)
    '''

    # this is used by ._addCheetahPlumbingCodeToClass()
    _CHEETAH_requiredCheetahMethods = (
         '
_initCheetahInstance',
         '
searchList',
         '
errorCatcher',
         '
getVar',
         '
varExists',
         '
getFileContents',
         '
i18n',
         '
runAsMainProgram',
         '
respond',
         '
shutdown',
         '
webInput',
         '
serverSidePath',
         '
generatedClassCode',
         '
generatedModuleCode',

         '
_getCacheStore',
         '
_getCacheStoreIdPrefix',
         '
_createCacheRegion',
         '
getCacheRegion',
         '
getCacheRegions',
         '
refreshCache',
         
         '
_handleCheetahInclude',
         '
_getTemplateAPIClassForIncludeDirectiveCompilation',
         )
    _CHEETAH_requiredCheetahClassMethods = ('
subclass',)
    _CHEETAH_requiredCheetahClassAttributes = ('
cacheRegionClass', 'cacheStore',
                                               '
cacheStoreIdPrefix', 'cacheStoreClass')

    ## the following are used by .compile(). Most are documented in its docstring.
    _CHEETAH_cacheModuleFilesForTracebacks = False
    _CHEETAH_cacheDirForModuleFiles = None # change to a dirname

    _CHEETAH_compileCache = dict() # cache store for compiled code and classes
    # To do something other than simple in-memory caching you can create an
    # alternative cache store. It just needs to support the basics of Python'
s
    # mapping/dict protocol. E.g.:
    #   class AdvCachingTemplate(Template):
    #       _CHEETAH_compileCache = MemoryOrFileCache()
    _CHEETAH_compileLock = Lock() # used to prevent race conditions
    _CHEETAH_defaultMainMethodName = None
    _CHEETAH_compilerSettings = None
    _CHEETAH_compilerClass = Compiler
    _CHEETAH_compilerInstance = None
    _CHEETAH_cacheCompilationResults = True
    _CHEETAH_useCompilationCache = True
    _CHEETAH_keepRefToGeneratedCode = True
    _CHEETAH_defaultBaseclassForTemplates = None
    _CHEETAH_defaultClassNameForTemplates = None
    # defaults to DEFAULT_COMPILER_SETTINGS['mainMethodName']:
    _CHEETAH_defaultMainMethodNameForTemplates = None
    _CHEETAH_defaultModuleNameForTemplates = 'DynamicallyCompiledCheetahTemplate'
    _CHEETAH_defaultModuleGlobalsForTemplates = None
    _CHEETAH_preprocessors = None
    _CHEETAH_defaultPreprocessorClass = TemplatePreprocessor    
   
    ## The following attributes are used by instance methods:
    _CHEETAH_generatedModuleCode = None
    NonNumericInputError = NonNumericInputError
    _CHEETAH_cacheRegionClass = CacheRegion
    _CHEETAH_cacheStoreClass = MemoryCacheStore
    #_CHEETAH_cacheStoreClass = MemcachedCacheStore
    _CHEETAH_cacheStore = None  
    _CHEETAH_cacheStoreIdPrefix = None  

    @classmethod
    def _getCompilerClass(klass, source=None, file=None):
        return klass._CHEETAH_compilerClass

    @classmethod
    def _getCompilerSettings(klass, source=None, file=None):
        return klass._CHEETAH_compilerSettings
   
    @classmethod
    def compile(klass, source=None, file=None,
                returnAClass=True,
               
                compilerSettings=Unspecified,
                compilerClass=Unspecified,
                moduleName=None,
                className=Unspecified,
                mainMethodName=Unspecified,
                baseclass=Unspecified,
                moduleGlobals=Unspecified,
                cacheCompilationResults=Unspecified,
                useCache=Unspecified,
                preprocessors=Unspecified,
                cacheModuleFilesForTracebacks=Unspecified,
                cacheDirForModuleFiles=Unspecified,
                commandlineopts=None,
                keepRefToGeneratedCode=Unspecified,                
                ):
       
        """
        The core API for compiling Cheetah source code into template classes.

        This class method compiles Cheetah source code and returns a python
        class.  You then create template instances using that class.  All
        Cheetah's other compilation API's use this method under the hood.

        Internally, this method a) parses the Cheetah source code and generates
        Python code defining a module with a single class in it, b) dynamically
        creates a module object with a unique name, c) execs the generated code
        in that module's namespace then inserts the module into sys.modules, and
        d) returns a reference to the generated class.  If you want to get the
        generated python source code instead, pass the argument
        returnAClass=False.

        It caches generated code and classes.  See the descriptions of the
        arguments'cacheCompilationResults' and 'useCache' for details. This
        doesn't mean that templates will automatically recompile themselves when
        the source file changes. Rather, if you call Template.compile(src) or
        Template.compile(file=path) repeatedly it will attempt to return a
        cached class definition instead of recompiling.

        Hooks are provided template source preprocessing.  See the notes on the
        'preprocessors' arg.

        If you are an advanced user and need to customize the way Cheetah parses
        source code or outputs Python code, you should check out the
        compilerSettings argument.

        Arguments:
          You must provide either a 'source' or 'file' arg, but not both:
            - source (string or None)
            - file (string path, file-like object, or None)

          The rest of the arguments are strictly optional. All but the first
          have defaults in attributes of the Template class which can be
          overridden in subclasses of this class.  Working with most of these is
          an advanced topic.
         
            - returnAClass=True            
              If false, return the generated module code rather than a class.

            - compilerSettings (a dict)
              Default: Template._CHEETAH_compilerSettings=None
           
              a dictionary of settings to override those defined in
              DEFAULT_COMPILER_SETTINGS. These can also be overridden in your
              template source code with the #compiler or #compiler-settings
              directives.
                 
            - compilerClass (a class)
              Default: Template._CHEETAH_compilerClass=Cheetah.Compiler.Compiler
           
              a subclass of Cheetah.Compiler.Compiler. Mucking with this is a
              very advanced topic.
                 
            - moduleName (a string)
              Default:
                  Template._CHEETAH_defaultModuleNameForTemplates
                  ='DynamicallyCompiledCheetahTemplate'
           
              What to name the generated Python module.  If the provided value is
              None and a file arg was given, the moduleName is created from the
              file path.  In all cases if the moduleName provided is already in
              sys.modules it is passed through a filter that generates a unique
              variant of the name.


            - className (a string)
              Default: Template._CHEETAH_defaultClassNameForTemplates=None
             
              What to name the generated Python class.  If the provided value is
              None, the moduleName is use as the class name.

            - mainMethodName (a string)
              Default:
                  Template._CHEETAH_defaultMainMethodNameForTemplates
                  =None (and thus DEFAULT_COMPILER_SETTINGS['mainMethodName'])
           
              What to name the main output generating method in the compiled
              template class.  

            - baseclass (a string or a class)
              Default: Template._CHEETAH_defaultBaseclassForTemplates=None

              Specifies the baseclass for the template without manually
              including an #extends directive in the source. The #extends
              directive trumps this arg.

              If the provided value is a string you must make sure that a class
              reference by that name is available to your template, either by
              using an #import directive or by providing it in the arg
              'moduleGlobals'.  

              If the provided value is a class, Cheetah will handle all the
              details for you.

            - moduleGlobals (a dict)
              Default: Template._CHEETAH_defaultModuleGlobalsForTemplates=None

              A dict of vars that will be added to the global namespace of the
              module the generated code is executed in, prior to the execution
              of that code.  This should be Python values, not code strings!
             
            - cacheCompilationResults (True/False)
              Default: Template._CHEETAH_cacheCompilationResults=True

              Tells Cheetah to cache the generated code and classes so that they
              can be reused if Template.compile() is called multiple times with
              the same source and options.
                           
            - useCache (True/False)
              Default: Template._CHEETAH_useCompilationCache=True

              Should the compilation cache be used?  If True and a previous
              compilation created a cached template class with the same source
              code, compiler settings and other options, the cached template
              class will be returned.

            - cacheModuleFilesForTracebacks (True/False)
              Default: Template._CHEETAH_cacheModuleFilesForTracebacks=False

              In earlier versions of Cheetah tracebacks from exceptions that
              were raised inside dynamically compiled Cheetah templates were
              opaque because Python didn't have access to a python source file
              to use in the traceback:
       
                File "xxxx.py", line 192, in getTextiledContent
                  content = str(template(searchList=searchList))
                File "cheetah_yyyy.py", line 202, in __str__
                File "cheetah_yyyy.py", line 187, in respond
                File "cheetah_yyyy.py", line 139, in writeBody
               ZeroDivisionError: integer division or modulo by zero
       
              It is now possible to keep those files in a cache dir and allow
              Python to include the actual source lines in tracebacks and makes
              them much easier to understand:
       
               File "xxxx.py", line 192, in getTextiledContent
                 content = str(template(searchList=searchList))
               File "/tmp/CheetahCacheDir/cheetah_yyyy.py", line 202, in __str__
                 def __str__(self): return self.respond()
               File "/tmp/CheetahCacheDir/cheetah_yyyy.py", line 187, in respond
                 self.writeBody(trans=trans)
               File "/tmp/CheetahCacheDir/cheetah_yyyy.py", line 139, in writeBody
                 __v = 0/0 # $(0/0)
              ZeroDivisionError: integer division or modulo by zero
           
            - cacheDirForModuleFiles (a string representing a dir path)
              Default: Template._CHEETAH_cacheDirForModuleFiles=None

              See notes on cacheModuleFilesForTracebacks.

            - preprocessors
              Default: Template._CHEETAH_preprocessors=None

              ** THIS IS A VERY ADVANCED TOPIC **
             
              These are used to transform the source code prior to compilation.
              They provide a way to use Cheetah as a code generator for Cheetah
              code. In other words, you use one Cheetah template to output the
              source code for another Cheetah template.
             
              The major expected use cases are:
                 
                a) 'compile-time caching' aka 'partial template binding',
                   wherein an intermediate Cheetah template is used to output
                   the source for the final Cheetah template. The intermediate
                   template is a mix of a modified Cheetah syntax (the
                   'preprocess syntax') and standard Cheetah syntax.  The
                   preprocessor syntax is executed at compile time and outputs
                   Cheetah code which is then compiled in turn. This approach
                   allows one to completely soft-code all the elements in the
                   template which are subject to change yet have it compile to
                   extremely efficient Python code with everything but the
                   elements that must be variable at runtime (per browser
                   request, etc.) compiled as static strings.  Examples of this
                   usage pattern will be added to the Cheetah Users' Guide.

                   The'preprocess syntax' is just Cheetah's standard one with
                   alternatives for the $ and # tokens:
                   
                    e.g. '@' and '%' for code like this
                     @aPreprocessVar $aRuntimeVar
                     %if aCompileTimeCondition then yyy else zzz
                     %% preprocessor comment
                     
                     #if aRunTimeCondition then aaa else bbb
                     ## normal comment
                     $aRuntimeVar
                                     
                b) adding #import and #extends directives dynamically based on
                   the source
               
              If preprocessors are provided, Cheetah pipes the source code
              through each one in the order provided.  Each preprocessor should
              accept the args (source, file) and should return a tuple (source,
              file).

              The argument value should be a list, but a single non-list value
              is acceptable and will automatically be converted into a list.
              Each item in the list will be passed through
              Template._normalizePreprocessor().  The items should either match
              one of the following forms:
             
                - an object with a .preprocess(source, file) method
                - a callable with the following signature:
                    source, file = f(source, file)
               
                or one of the forms below:
               
                - a single string denoting the 2 'tokens' for the preprocess
                  syntax.  The tokens should be in the order (placeholderToken,
                  directiveToken) and should separated with a space:
                     e.g. '@ %'
                     klass = Template.compile(src, preprocessors='@ %')
                     # or
                     klass = Template.compile(src, preprocessors=['@ %'])
                     
                - a dict with the following keys or an object with the
                  following attributes (all are optional, but nothing will
                  happen if you don't provide at least one):
                   - tokens: same as the single string described above. You can
                     also provide a tuple of 2 strings.
                   - searchList: the searchList used for preprocess $placeholders
                   - compilerSettings: used in the compilation of the intermediate
                     template                
                   - templateAPIClass: an optional subclass of `Template`
                   - outputTransformer: a simple hook for passing in a callable
                     which can do further transformations of the preprocessor
                     output, or do something else like debug logging. The
                     default is str().
                   + any keyword arguments to Template.compile which you want to
                     provide for the compilation of the intermediate template.
                     
                   klass = Template.compile(src,
                          preprocessors=[ dict(tokens='@ %', searchList=[...]) ] )
           
        """

        errmsg = "arg '%s' must be %s"

        if not isinstance(source, (types.NoneType, basestring)):
            raise TypeError(errmsg % ('source', 'string or None'))

        if not isinstance(file, (types.NoneType, basestring, filetype)):
            raise TypeError(errmsg %
                            ('file', 'string, file-like object, or None'))

        if baseclass is Unspecified:
            baseclass = klass._CHEETAH_defaultBaseclassForTemplates
        if isinstance(baseclass, Template):
            baseclass = baseclass.__class__

        if not isinstance(baseclass, (types.NoneType, basestring, type)):
            raise TypeError(errmsg % ('baseclass', 'string, class or None'))

        if cacheCompilationResults is Unspecified:
            cacheCompilationResults = klass._CHEETAH_cacheCompilationResults

        if not isinstance(cacheCompilationResults, (int, bool)):
            raise TypeError(errmsg % ('cacheCompilationResults', 'boolean'))

        if useCache is Unspecified:
            useCache = klass._CHEETAH_useCompilationCache

        if not isinstance(useCache, (int, bool)):
            raise TypeError(errmsg % ('useCache', 'boolean'))

        if compilerSettings is Unspecified:
            compilerSettings = klass._getCompilerSettings(source, file) or {}
        if not isinstance(compilerSettings, dict):
            raise TypeError(errmsg % ('compilerSettings', 'dictionary'))

        if compilerClass is Unspecified:
            compilerClass = klass._getCompilerClass(source, file)
        if preprocessors is Unspecified:
            preprocessors = klass._CHEETAH_preprocessors

        if keepRefToGeneratedCode is Unspecified:
            keepRefToGeneratedCode = klass._CHEETAH_keepRefToGeneratedCode

        if not isinstance(keepRefToGeneratedCode, (int, bool)):
            raise TypeError(errmsg % ('keepReftoGeneratedCode', 'boolean'))

        if not isinstance(moduleName, (types.NoneType, basestring)):
            raise TypeError(errmsg % ('moduleName', 'string or None'))
        __orig_file__ = None
        if not moduleName:
            if file and isinstance(file, basestring):
                moduleName = convertTmplPathToModuleName(file)
                __orig_file__ = file
            else:
                moduleName = klass._CHEETAH_defaultModuleNameForTemplates

        if className is Unspecified:
            className = klass._CHEETAH_defaultClassNameForTemplates

        if not isinstance(className, (types.NoneType, basestring)):
            raise TypeError(errmsg % ('className', 'string or None'))
        className = re.sub(r'^_+','', className or moduleName)

        if mainMethodName is Unspecified:
            mainMethodName = klass._CHEETAH_defaultMainMethodNameForTemplates

        if not isinstance(mainMethodName, (types.NoneType, basestring)):
            raise TypeError(errmsg % ('mainMethodName', 'string or None'))

        if moduleGlobals is Unspecified:
            moduleGlobals = klass._CHEETAH_defaultModuleGlobalsForTemplates

        if cacheModuleFilesForTracebacks is Unspecified:
            cacheModuleFilesForTracebacks = klass._CHEETAH_cacheModuleFilesForTracebacks

        if not isinstance(cacheModuleFilesForTracebacks, (int, bool)):
            raise TypeError(errmsg %
                            ('cacheModuleFilesForTracebacks', 'boolean'))

        if cacheDirForModuleFiles is Unspecified:
            cacheDirForModuleFiles = klass._CHEETAH_cacheDirForModuleFiles

        if not isinstance(cacheDirForModuleFiles, (types.NoneType, basestring)):
            raise TypeError(errmsg %
                            ('cacheDirForModuleFiles', 'string or None'))

        ##################################################          
        ## handle any preprocessors
        if preprocessors:
            origSrc = source
            source, file = klass._preprocessSource(source, file, preprocessors)

        ##################################################                      
        ## compilation, using cache if requested/possible
        baseclassValue = None
        baseclassName = None
        if baseclass:
            if isinstance(baseclass, basestring):
                baseclassName = baseclass
            elif isinstance(baseclass, type):
                # @@TR: should soft-code this
                baseclassName = 'CHEETAH_dynamicallyAssignedBaseClass_'+baseclass.__name__
                baseclassValue = baseclass


        cacheHash = None
        cacheItem = None
        if source or isinstance(file, basestring):
            compilerSettingsHash = None
            if compilerSettings:
                compilerSettingsHash = hashDict(compilerSettings)

            moduleGlobalsHash = None
            if moduleGlobals:
                moduleGlobalsHash = hashDict(moduleGlobals)

            fileHash = None
            if file:
                fileHash = str(hash(file))
                if globals()['__checkFileMtime']:
                    fileHash += str(os.path.getmtime(file))
               
            try:
                # @@TR: find some way to create a cacheHash that is consistent
                # between process restarts.  It would allow for caching the
                # compiled module on disk and thereby reduce the startup time
                # for applications that use a lot of dynamically compiled
                # templates.                
                cacheHash = ''.join([str(v) for v in
                                     [hash(source),
                                      fileHash,
                                      className,
                                      moduleName,
                                      mainMethodName,
                                      hash(compilerClass),
                                      hash(baseclass),
                                      compilerSettingsHash,
                                      moduleGlobalsHash,
                                      hash(cacheDirForModuleFiles),
                                      ]])
            except:
                #@@TR: should add some logging to this
                pass
        outputEncoding = 'ascii'
        compiler = None
        if useCache and cacheHash and cacheHash in klass._CHEETAH_compileCache:
            cacheItem = klass._CHEETAH_compileCache[cacheHash]
            generatedModuleCode = cacheItem.code
        else:
            compiler = compilerClass(source, file,
                                     moduleName=moduleName,
                                     mainClassName=className,
                                     baseclassName=baseclassName,
                                     mainMethodName=mainMethodName,
                                     settings=(compilerSettings or {}))
            if commandlineopts:
                compiler.setShBang(commandlineopts.shbang)
            compiler.compile()
            generatedModuleCode = compiler.getModuleCode()
            outputEncoding = compiler.getModuleEncoding()

        if not returnAClass:
            # This is a bit of a hackish solution to make sure we're setting the proper
            # encoding on generated code that is destined to be written to a file
            if not outputEncoding == 'ascii':
                generatedModuleCode = generatedModuleCode.split('\n')
                generatedModuleCode.insert(1, '# -*- coding: %s -*-' % outputEncoding)
                generatedModuleCode = '\n'.join(generatedModuleCode)
            return generatedModuleCode.encode(outputEncoding)
        else:
            if cacheItem:
                cacheItem.lastCheckoutTime = time.time()
                return cacheItem.klass

            try:
                klass._CHEETAH_compileLock.acquire()
                uniqueModuleName = _genUniqueModuleName(moduleName)
                __file__ = uniqueModuleName+'.py' # relative file path with no dir part

                if cacheModuleFilesForTracebacks:
                    if not os.path.exists(cacheDirForModuleFiles):
                        raise Exception('%s does not exist'%cacheDirForModuleFiles)

                    __file__ = os.path.join(cacheDirForModuleFiles, __file__)
                    # @@TR: might want to assert that it doesn't already exist
                    open(__file__, 'w').write(generatedModuleCode)
                    # @@TR: should probably restrict the perms, etc.

                mod = types.ModuleType(str(uniqueModuleName))
                if moduleGlobals:
                    for k, v in moduleGlobals.items():
                        setattr(mod, k, v)
                mod.__file__ = __file__
                if __orig_file__ and os.path.exists(__orig_file__):
                    # this is used in the WebKit filemonitoring code
                    mod.__orig_file__ = __orig_file__

                if baseclass and baseclassValue:
                    setattr(mod, baseclassName, baseclassValue)
                ##
                try:
                    co = compile(generatedModuleCode, __file__, 'exec')
                    exec(co, mod.__dict__)
                except SyntaxError, e:
                    try:
                        parseError = genParserErrorFromPythonException(
                            source, file, generatedModuleCode, exception=e)
                    except:
                        updateLinecache(__file__, generatedModuleCode)
                        e.generatedModuleCode = generatedModuleCode
                        raise e
                    else:
                        raise parseError
                except Exception, e:
                    updateLinecache(__file__, generatedModuleCode)
                    e.generatedModuleCode = generatedModuleCode
                    raise
                ##
                sys.modules[uniqueModuleName] = mod
            finally:
                klass._CHEETAH_compileLock.release()

            templateClass = getattr(mod, className)

            if (cacheCompilationResults
                and cacheHash
                and cacheHash not in klass._CHEETAH_compileCache):
               
                cacheItem = CompileCacheItem()
                cacheItem.cacheTime = cacheItem.lastCheckoutTime = time.time()
                cacheItem.code = generatedModuleCode
                cacheItem.klass = templateClass
                templateClass._CHEETAH_isInCompilationCache = True
                klass._CHEETAH_compileCache[cacheHash] = cacheItem
            else:
                templateClass._CHEETAH_isInCompilationCache = False

            if keepRefToGeneratedCode or cacheCompilationResults:
                templateClass._CHEETAH_generatedModuleCode = generatedModuleCode                
     
            # If we have a compiler object, let's set it to the compiler class
            # to help the directive analyzer code
            if compiler:
                templateClass._CHEETAH_compilerInstance = compiler
            return templateClass

    @classmethod
    def subclass(klass, *args, **kws):
        """Takes the same args as the .compile() classmethod and returns a
        template that is a subclass of the template this method is called from.

          T1 = Template.compile(' foo - $meth1 - bar\n#def meth1: this is T1.meth1')
          T2 = T1.subclass('#implements meth1\n this is T2.meth1')
        """

        kws['baseclass'] = klass
        if isinstance(klass, Template):
            templateAPIClass = klass
        else:
            templateAPIClass = Template
        return templateAPIClass.compile(*args, **kws)

    @classmethod
    def _preprocessSource(klass, source, file, preprocessors):
        """Iterates through the .compile() classmethod's preprocessors argument
        and pipes the source code through each each preprocessor.

        It returns the tuple (source, file) which is then used by
        Template.compile to finish the compilation.
        """

        if not isinstance(preprocessors, (list, tuple)):
            preprocessors = [preprocessors]
        for preprocessor in preprocessors:
            preprocessor = klass._normalizePreprocessorArg(preprocessor)
            source, file = preprocessor.preprocess(source, file)
        return source, file

    @classmethod
    def _normalizePreprocessorArg(klass, arg):
        """Used to convert the items in the .compile() classmethod's
        preprocessors argument into real source preprocessors.  This permits the
        use of several shortcut forms for defining preprocessors.
        """

       
        if hasattr(arg, 'preprocess'):
            return arg
        elif hasattr(arg, '__call__'):
            class WrapperPreprocessor:
                def preprocess(self, source, file):
                    return arg(source, file)
            return WrapperPreprocessor()
        else:
            class Settings(object):
                placeholderToken = None
                directiveToken = None
            settings = Settings()
            if isinstance(arg, str) or isinstance(arg, (list, tuple)):
                settings.tokens = arg
            elif isinstance(arg, dict):
                for k, v in arg.items():
                    setattr(settings, k, v)  
            else:
                settings = arg

            settings = klass._normalizePreprocessorSettings(settings)
            return klass._CHEETAH_defaultPreprocessorClass(settings)

       
    @classmethod
    def _normalizePreprocessorSettings(klass, settings):
        settings.keepRefToGeneratedCode = True

        def normalizeSearchList(searchList):
            if not isinstance(searchList, (list, tuple)):
                searchList = [searchList]
            return searchList            

        def normalizeTokens(tokens):
            if isinstance(tokens, str):
                return tokens.split() # space delimited string e.g.'@ %'
            elif isinstance(tokens, (list, tuple)):
                return tokens
            else:
                raise PreprocessError('invalid tokens argument: %r'%tokens)

        if hasattr(settings, 'tokens'):
            (settings.placeholderToken,
             settings.directiveToken) = normalizeTokens(settings.tokens)
           
        if (not getattr(settings, 'compilerSettings', None)
            and not getattr(settings, 'placeholderToken', None) ):
           
            raise TypeError(
                'Preprocessor requires either a "tokens" or a "compilerSettings" arg.'
                ' Neither was provided.')

        if not hasattr(settings, 'templateInitArgs'):
            settings.templateInitArgs = {}
        if 'searchList' not in settings.templateInitArgs:
            if not hasattr(settings, 'searchList') and hasattr(settings, 'namespaces'):
                settings.searchList = settings.namespaces
            elif not hasattr(settings, 'searchList'):
                settings.searchList = []
            settings.templateInitArgs['searchList'] = settings.searchList
        settings.templateInitArgs['searchList'] = (
            normalizeSearchList(settings.templateInitArgs['searchList']))
           
        if not hasattr(settings, 'outputTransformer'):
            settings.outputTransformer = unicode

        if not hasattr(settings, 'templateAPIClass'):
            class PreprocessTemplateAPIClass(klass): pass
            settings.templateAPIClass = PreprocessTemplateAPIClass

        if not hasattr(settings, 'compilerSettings'):
            settings.compilerSettings = {}

        klass._updateSettingsWithPreprocessTokens(
            compilerSettings=settings.compilerSettings,
            placeholderToken=settings.placeholderToken,
            directiveToken=settings.directiveToken
            )                            
        return settings

    @classmethod
    def _updateSettingsWithPreprocessTokens(
        klass, compilerSettings, placeholderToken, directiveToken):
       
        if (placeholderToken and 'cheetahVarStartToken' not in compilerSettings):
            compilerSettings['cheetahVarStartToken'] = placeholderToken
        if directiveToken:
            if 'directiveStartToken' not in compilerSettings:
                compilerSettings['directiveStartToken'] = directiveToken
            if 'directiveEndToken' not in compilerSettings:
                compilerSettings['directiveEndToken'] = directiveToken
            if 'commentStartToken' not in compilerSettings:
                compilerSettings['commentStartToken'] = directiveToken*2
            if 'multiLineCommentStartToken' not in compilerSettings:
                compilerSettings['multiLineCommentStartToken'] = (
                    directiveToken+'*')
            if 'multiLineCommentEndToken' not in compilerSettings:
                compilerSettings['multiLineCommentEndToken'] = (
                    '*'+directiveToken)
            if 'EOLSlurpToken' not in compilerSettings:
                compilerSettings['EOLSlurpToken'] = directiveToken

    @classmethod
    def _addCheetahPlumbingCodeToClass(klass, concreteTemplateClass):
        """If concreteTemplateClass is not a subclass of Cheetah.Template, add
        the required cheetah methods and attributes to it.

        This is called on each new template class after it has been compiled.
        If concreteTemplateClass is not a subclass of Cheetah.Template but
        already has method with the same name as one of the required cheetah
        methods, this will skip that method.
        """

        for methodname in klass._CHEETAH_requiredCheetahMethods:
            if not hasattr(concreteTemplateClass, methodname):
                method = getattr(Template, methodname)
                newMethod = createMethod(method.im_func, concreteTemplateClass)
                setattr(concreteTemplateClass, methodname, newMethod)

        for classMethName in klass._CHEETAH_requiredCheetahClassMethods:
            if not hasattr(concreteTemplateClass, classMethName):
                meth = getattr(klass, classMethName)
                setattr(concreteTemplateClass, classMethName, classmethod(meth.im_func))
           
        for attrname in klass._CHEETAH_requiredCheetahClassAttributes:
            attrname = '_CHEETAH_'+attrname
            if not hasattr(concreteTemplateClass, attrname):
                attrVal = getattr(klass, attrname)
                setattr(concreteTemplateClass, attrname, attrVal)

        if (not hasattr(concreteTemplateClass, '__str__')
            or concreteTemplateClass.__str__ is object.__str__):
           
            mainMethNameAttr = '_mainCheetahMethod_for_'+concreteTemplateClass.__name__
            mainMethName = getattr(concreteTemplateClass, mainMethNameAttr, None)
            if mainMethName:
                def __str__(self):
                    rc = getattr(self, mainMethName)()
                    if isinstance(rc, unicode):
                        return rc.encode('utf-8')
                    return rc
                def __unicode__(self):
                    return getattr(self, mainMethName)()
            elif (hasattr(concreteTemplateClass, 'respond')
                  and concreteTemplateClass.respond!=Servlet.respond):
                def __str__(self):
                    rc = self.respond()
                    if isinstance(rc, unicode):
                        return rc.encode('utf-8')
                    return rc
                def __unicode__(self):
                    return self.respond()
            else:
                def __str__(self):
                    rc = None
                    if hasattr(self, mainMethNameAttr):
                        rc = getattr(self, mainMethNameAttr)()
                    elif hasattr(self, 'respond'):
                        rc = self.respond()
                    else:
                        rc = super(self.__class__, self).__str__()
                    if isinstance(rc, unicode):
                        return rc.encode('utf-8')
                    return rc
                def __unicode__(self):
                    if hasattr(self, mainMethNameAttr):
                        return getattr(self, mainMethNameAttr)()
                    elif hasattr(self, 'respond'):
                        return self.respond()
                    else:
                        return super(self.__class__, self).__unicode__()
                   
            __str__ = createMethod(__str__, concreteTemplateClass)
            __unicode__ = createMethod(__unicode__, concreteTemplateClass)
            setattr(concreteTemplateClass, '__str__', __str__)
            setattr(concreteTemplateClass, '__unicode__', __unicode__)


    def __init__(self, source=None,

                 namespaces=None, searchList=None,
                 # use either or.  They are aliases for the same thing.
                 
                 file=None,
                 filter='RawOrEncodedUnicode', # which filter from Cheetah.Filters
                 filtersLib=Filters,
                 errorCatcher=None,
                 
                 compilerSettings=Unspecified, # control the behaviour of the compiler
                 _globalSetVars=None, # used internally for #include'd templates
                 _preBuiltSearchList=None # used internally for #include'd templates
                 ):        
        """a) compiles a new template OR b) instantiates an existing template.

        Read this docstring carefully as there are two distinct usage patterns.
        You should also read this class' main docstring.
       
        a) to compile a new template:
             t = Template(source=aSourceString)
                 # or
             t = Template(file='some/path')
                 # or
             t = Template(file=someFileObject)
                 # or
             namespaces = [{'foo':'bar'}]              
             t = Template(source=aSourceString, namespaces=namespaces)
                 # or
             t = Template(file='some/path', namespaces=namespaces)
 
             print t
             
        b) to create an instance of an existing, precompiled template class:
             ## i) first you need a reference to a compiled template class:
             tclass = Template.compile(source=src) # or just Template.compile(src)
                 # or
             tclass = Template.compile(file='some/path')
                 # or
             tclass = Template.compile(file=someFileObject)
                 # or
             # if you used the command line compiler or have Cheetah's ImportHooks
             # installed your template class is also available via Python's
             # standard import mechanism:
             from ACompileTemplate import AcompiledTemplate as tclass
             
             ## ii) then you create an instance
             t = tclass(namespaces=namespaces)
                 # or
             t = tclass(namespaces=namespaces, filter='RawOrEncodedUnicode')
             print t

        Arguments:
          for usage pattern a)          
            If you are compiling a new template, you must provide either a
            'source' or 'file' arg, but not both:          
              - source (string or None)
              - file (string path, file-like object, or None)

            Optional args (see below for more) :
              - compilerSettings
               Default: Template._CHEETAH_compilerSettings=None
               
               a dictionary of settings to override those defined in
               DEFAULT_COMPILER_SETTINGS.  See
               Cheetah.Template.DEFAULT_COMPILER_SETTINGS and the Users' Guide
               for details.

            You can pass the source arg in as a positional arg with this usage
            pattern.  Use keywords for all other args.          

          for usage pattern b)
            Do not use positional args with this usage pattern, unless your
            template subclasses something other than Cheetah.Template and you
            want to pass positional args to that baseclass.  E.g.:
              dictTemplate = Template.compile('hello $name from $caller', baseclass=dict)
              tmplvars = dict(name='world', caller='me')
              print dictTemplate(tmplvars)
            This usage requires all Cheetah args to be passed in as keyword args.

          optional args for both usage patterns:

            - namespaces (aka 'searchList')
              Default: None
             
              an optional list of namespaces (dictionaries, objects, modules,
              etc.) which Cheetah will search through to find the variables
              referenced in $placeholders.

              If you provide a single namespace instead of a list, Cheetah will
              automatically convert it into a list.
               
              NOTE: Cheetah does NOT force you to use the namespaces search list
              and related features.  It's on by default, but you can turn if off
              using the compiler settings useSearchList=False or
              useNameMapper=False.
               
             - filter
               Default: 'EncodeUnicode'
               
               Which filter should be used for output filtering. This should
               either be a string which is the name of a filter in the
               'filtersLib' or a subclass of Cheetah.Filters.Filter. . See the
               Users' Guide for more details.

             - filtersLib
               Default: Cheetah.Filters
               
               A module containing subclasses of Cheetah.Filters.Filter. See the
               Users' Guide for more details.

             - errorCatcher
               Default: None

               This is a debugging tool. See the Users' Guide for more details.
               Do not use this or the #errorCatcher diretive with live
               production systems.

          Do NOT mess with the args _globalSetVars or _preBuiltSearchList!


        """

        errmsg = "arg '%s' must be %s"
        errmsgextra = errmsg + "\n%s"

        if not isinstance(source, (types.NoneType, basestring)):
            raise TypeError(errmsg % ('source', 'string or None'))

        if not isinstance(source, (types.NoneType, basestring, filetype)):
            raise TypeError(errmsg %
                            ('file', 'string, file open for reading, or None'))

        if not isinstance(filter, (basestring, types.TypeType)) and not \
                (isinstance(filter, type) and issubclass(filter, Filters.Filter)):
            raise TypeError(errmsgextra %
                            ('filter', 'string or class',
                             '(if class, must be subclass of Cheetah.Filters.Filter)'))
        if not isinstance(filtersLib, (basestring, types.ModuleType)):
            raise TypeError(errmsgextra %
                            ('filtersLib', 'string or module',
                             '(if module, must contain subclasses of Cheetah.Filters.Filter)'))

        if not errorCatcher is None:
            err = True
            if isinstance(errorCatcher, (basestring, types.TypeType)):
                err = False
            if isinstance(errorCatcher, type) and \
                    issubclass(errorCatcher, ErrorCatchers.ErrorCatcher):
                err = False
            if err:
                raise TypeError(errmsgextra %
                            ('errorCatcher', 'string, class or None',
                             '(if class, must be subclass of Cheetah.ErrorCatchers.ErrorCatcher)'))
        if compilerSettings is not Unspecified:
            if not isinstance(compilerSettings, types.DictType):
                raise TypeError(errmsg %
                                ('compilerSettings', 'dictionary'))
       
        if source is not None and file is not None:
            raise TypeError("you must supply either a source string or the" +
                            " 'file' keyword argument, but not both")
                   
        ##################################################          
        ## Do superclass initialization.
        super(Template, self).__init__()

        ##################################################          
        ## Do required version check
        if not hasattr(self, '_CHEETAH_versionTuple'):
            try:
                mod = sys.modules[self.__class__.__module__]
                compiledVersion = mod.__CHEETAH_version__
                compiledVersionTuple = convertVersionStringToTuple(compiledVersion)
                if compiledVersionTuple < MinCompatibleVersionTuple:
                    raise AssertionError(
                     'This template was compiled with Cheetah version'
                     ' %s. Templates compiled before version %s must be recompiled.'%(
                        compiledVersion, MinCompatibleVersion))                    
            except AssertionError:
                raise
            except:
                pass
       
        ##################################################          
        ## Setup instance state attributes used during the life of template
        ## post-compile
        if searchList:
            for namespace in searchList:
                if isinstance(namespace, dict):
                    intersection = self.Reserved_SearchList & set(namespace.keys())
                    warn = False
                    if intersection:
                        warn = True
                    if isinstance(compilerSettings, dict) and compilerSettings.get('prioritizeSearchListOverSelf'):
                        warn = False
                    if warn:
                        logging.info(''' The following keys are members of the Template class and will result in NameMapper collisions! ''')
                        logging.info('''  > %s ''' % ', '.join(list(intersection)))
                        logging.info(''' Please change the key's name or use the compiler setting "prioritizeSearchListOverSelf=True" to prevent the NameMapper from using ''')
                        logging.info('
'' the Template member in place of your searchList variable ''')
                       

        self._initCheetahInstance(
            searchList=searchList, namespaces=namespaces,
            filter=filter, filtersLib=filtersLib,
            errorCatcher=errorCatcher,
            _globalSetVars=_globalSetVars,
            compilerSettings=compilerSettings,
            _preBuiltSearchList=_preBuiltSearchList)
       
        ##################################################
        ## Now, compile if we'
re meant to
        if (source is not None) or (file is not None):
            self._compile(source, file, compilerSettings=compilerSettings)

    def generatedModuleCode(self):
        """Return the module code the compiler generated, or None if no
        compilation took place.
        """

       
        return self._CHEETAH_generatedModuleCode
   
    def generatedClassCode(self):        
        """Return the class code the compiler generated, or None if no
        compilation took place.
        """

       
        return self._CHEETAH_generatedModuleCode[
                    self._CHEETAH_generatedModuleCode.find('\nclass '):
                    self._CHEETAH_generatedModuleCode.find('\n## END CLASS DEFINITION')]
   
    def searchList(self):
        """Return a reference to the searchlist
        """

        return self._CHEETAH__searchList

    def errorCatcher(self):
        """Return a reference to the current errorCatcher
        """

        return self._CHEETAH__errorCatcher

    ## cache methods ##
    def _getCacheStore(self):
        if not self._CHEETAH__cacheStore:
            if self._CHEETAH_cacheStore is not None:
                self._CHEETAH__cacheStore = self._CHEETAH_cacheStore
            else:
                # @@TR: might want to provide a way to provide init args
                self._CHEETAH__cacheStore = self._CHEETAH_cacheStoreClass()

        return self._CHEETAH__cacheStore

    def _getCacheStoreIdPrefix(self):
        if self._CHEETAH_cacheStoreIdPrefix is not None:            
            return self._CHEETAH_cacheStoreIdPrefix
        else:
            return str(id(self))
   
    def _createCacheRegion(self, regionID):
        return self._CHEETAH_cacheRegionClass(
            regionID=regionID,
            templateCacheIdPrefix=self._getCacheStoreIdPrefix(),
            cacheStore=self._getCacheStore())

    def getCacheRegion(self, regionID, cacheInfo=None, create=True):
        cacheRegion = self._CHEETAH__cacheRegions.get(regionID)
        if not cacheRegion and create:
            cacheRegion = self._createCacheRegion(regionID)
            self._CHEETAH__cacheRegions[regionID] = cacheRegion
        return cacheRegion        
   
    def getCacheRegions(self):
        """Returns a dictionary of the 'cache regions' initialized in a
        template.

        Each #cache directive block or $*cachedPlaceholder is a separate 'cache
        region'.        
        """

        # returns a copy to prevent users mucking it up
        return self._CHEETAH__cacheRegions.copy()

    def refreshCache(self, cacheRegionId=None, cacheItemId=None):        
        """Refresh a cache region or a specific cache item within a region.
        """

       
        if not cacheRegionId:
            for cacheRegion in self.getCacheRegions().itervalues():
                cacheRegion.clear()
        else:
            cregion = self._CHEETAH__cacheRegions.get(cacheRegionId)
            if not cregion:
                return
            if not cacheItemId: # clear the desired region and all its cacheItems
                cregion.clear()
            else: # clear one specific cache of a specific region
                cache = cregion.getCacheItem(cacheItemId)
                if cache:
                    cache.clear()
                   
    ## end cache methods ##
                   
    def shutdown(self):
        """Break reference cycles before discarding a servlet.
        """

        try:
            Servlet.shutdown(self)
        except:
            pass
        self._CHEETAH__searchList = None
        self.__dict__ = {}
           
    ## utility functions ##  

    def getVar(self, varName, default=Unspecified, autoCall=True):        
        """Get a variable from the searchList.  If the variable can't be found
        in the searchList, it returns the default value if one was given, or
        raises NameMapper.NotFound.
        """

       
        try:
            return valueFromSearchList(self.searchList(), varName.replace('$', ''), autoCall)
        except NotFound:
            if default is not Unspecified:
                return default
            else:
                raise
   
    def varExists(self, varName, autoCall=True):
        """Test if a variable name exists in the searchList.
        """

        try:
            valueFromSearchList(self.searchList(), varName.replace('$', ''), autoCall)
            return True
        except NotFound:
            return False


    hasVar = varExists


    def i18n(self, message,
             plural=None,
             n=None,
                   
             id=None,
             domain=None,
             source=None,
             target=None,
             comment=None
             ):
        """This is just a stub at this time.

           plural = the plural form of the message
           n = a sized argument to distinguish between single and plural forms          

           id = msgid in the translation catalog
           domain = translation domain
           source = source lang
           target = a specific target lang
           comment = a comment to the translation team

        See the following for some ideas
        http://www.zope.org/DevHome/Wikis/DevSite/Projects/ComponentArchitecture/ZPTInternationalizationSupport

        Other notes:
        - There is no need to replicate the i18n:name attribute from plone / PTL,
          as cheetah placeholders serve the same purpose
   
   
       """


        return message

    def getFileContents(self, path):
        """A hook for getting the contents of a file.  The default
        implementation just uses the Python open() function to load local files.
        This method could be reimplemented to allow reading of remote files via
        various protocols, as PHP allows with its 'URL fopen wrapper'
        """

       
        fp = open(path, 'r')
        output = fp.read()
        fp.close()
        return output
   
    def runAsMainProgram(self):        
        """Allows the Template to function as a standalone command-line program
        for static page generation.

        Type 'python yourtemplate.py --help to see what it's capabable of.
        """


        from TemplateCmdLineIface import CmdLineIface
        CmdLineIface(templateObj=self).run()
       
    ##################################################
    ## internal methods -- not to be called by end-users

    def _initCheetahInstance(self,
                             searchList=None,
                             namespaces=None,
                             filter='RawOrEncodedUnicode', # which filter from Cheetah.Filters
                             filtersLib=Filters,
                             errorCatcher=None,
                             _globalSetVars=None,
                             compilerSettings=None,
                             _preBuiltSearchList=None):
        """Sets up the instance attributes that cheetah templates use at
        run-time.

        This is automatically called by the __init__ method of compiled
        templates.

        Note that the names of instance attributes used by Cheetah are prefixed
        with '_CHEETAH__' (2 underscores), where class attributes are prefixed
        with '_CHEETAH_' (1 underscore).
        """

        if getattr(self, '_CHEETAH__instanceInitialized', False):
            return

        if namespaces is not None:
            assert searchList is None, (
                'Provide "namespaces" or "searchList", not both!')
            searchList = namespaces
        if searchList is not None and not isinstance(searchList, (list, tuple)):
            searchList = [searchList]

        self._CHEETAH__globalSetVars = {}
        if _globalSetVars is not None:
            # this is intended to be used internally by Nested Templates in #include's
            self._CHEETAH__globalSetVars = _globalSetVars
           
        if _preBuiltSearchList is not None:
            # happens with nested Template obj creation from #include's
            self._CHEETAH__searchList = list(_preBuiltSearchList)
            self._CHEETAH__searchList.append(self)
        else:
            # create our own searchList
            self._CHEETAH__searchList = [self._CHEETAH__globalSetVars, self]
            if searchList is not None:
                if isinstance(compilerSettings, dict) and compilerSettings.get('prioritizeSearchListOverSelf'):
                    self._CHEETAH__searchList = searchList + self._CHEETAH__searchList
                else:
                    self._CHEETAH__searchList.extend(list(searchList))
        self._CHEETAH__cheetahIncludes = {}
        self._CHEETAH__cacheRegions = {}
        self._CHEETAH__indenter = Indenter()

        # @@TR: consider allowing simple callables as the filter argument
        self._CHEETAH__filtersLib = filtersLib
        self._CHEETAH__filters = {}
        if isinstance(filter, basestring):
            filterName = filter
            klass = getattr(self._CHEETAH__filtersLib, filterName)
        else:
            klass = filter
            filterName = klass.__name__            
        self._CHEETAH__currentFilter = self._CHEETAH__filters[filterName] = klass(self).filter
        self._CHEETAH__initialFilter = self._CHEETAH__currentFilter

        self._CHEETAH__errorCatchers = {}
        if errorCatcher:
            if isinstance(errorCatcher, basestring):
                errorCatcherClass = getattr(ErrorCatchers, errorCatcher)
            elif isinstance(errorCatcher, type):
                errorCatcherClass = errorCatcher

            self._CHEETAH__errorCatcher = ec = errorCatcherClass(self)
            self._CHEETAH__errorCatchers[errorCatcher.__class__.__name__] = ec
                                 
        else:
            self._CHEETAH__errorCatcher = None
        self._CHEETAH__initErrorCatcher = self._CHEETAH__errorCatcher        

        if not hasattr(self, 'transaction'):
            self.transaction = None
        self._CHEETAH__instanceInitialized = True
        self._CHEETAH__isBuffering = False
        self._CHEETAH__isControlledByWebKit = False

        self._CHEETAH__cacheStore = None
        if self._CHEETAH_cacheStore is not None:
            self._CHEETAH__cacheStore = self._CHEETAH_cacheStore
       
    def _compile(self, source=None, file=None, compilerSettings=Unspecified,
                 moduleName=None, mainMethodName=None):
        """Compile the template. This method is automatically called by
        Template.__init__ it is provided with 'file' or 'source' args.

        USERS SHOULD *NEVER* CALL THIS METHOD THEMSELVES.  Use Template.compile
        instead.
        """

        if compilerSettings is Unspecified:
            compilerSettings = self._getCompilerSettings(source, file) or {}        
        mainMethodName = mainMethodName or self._CHEETAH_defaultMainMethodName
        self._fileMtime = None
        self._fileDirName = None
        self._fileBaseName = None
        if file and isinstance(file, basestring):
            file = self.serverSidePath(file)
            self._fileMtime = os.path.getmtime(file)
            self._fileDirName, self._fileBaseName = os.path.split(file)
        self._filePath = file
        templateClass = self.compile(source, file,
                                      moduleName=moduleName,
                                      mainMethodName=mainMethodName,
                                      compilerSettings=compilerSettings,
                                      keepRefToGeneratedCode=True)

        if not self.__class__ == Template:
            # Only propogate attributes if we're in a subclass of
            # Template
            for k, v in self.__class__.__dict__.iteritems():
                if not v or k.startswith('__'):
                    continue
                ## Propogate the class attributes to the instance
                ## since we're about to obliterate self.__class__
                ## (see: cheetah.Tests.Tepmlate.SubclassSearchListTest)
                setattr(self, k, v)

        self.__class__ = templateClass
        # must initialize it so instance attributes are accessible
        templateClass.__init__(self,
                               #_globalSetVars=self._CHEETAH__globalSetVars,
                               #_preBuiltSearchList=self._CHEETAH__searchList
                               )                              
        if not hasattr(self, 'transaction'):
            self.transaction = None

    def _handleCheetahInclude(self, srcArg, trans=None, includeFrom='file', raw=False):        
        """Called at runtime to handle #include directives.
        """

        _includeID = srcArg            
        if _includeID not in self._CHEETAH__cheetahIncludes:
            if not raw:
                if includeFrom == 'file':
                    source = None
                    if isinstance(srcArg, basestring):
                        if hasattr(self, 'serverSidePath'):
                            file = path = self.serverSidePath(srcArg)
                        else:
                            file = path = os.path.normpath(srcArg)
                    else:
                        file = srcArg ## a file-like object
                else:
                    source = srcArg
                    file = None
                # @@TR: might want to provide some syntax for specifying the
                # Template class to be used for compilation so compilerSettings
                # can be changed.
                compiler = self._getTemplateAPIClassForIncludeDirectiveCompilation(source, file)
                nestedTemplateClass = compiler.compile(source=source, file=file)
                nestedTemplate = nestedTemplateClass(_preBuiltSearchList=self.searchList(),
                                                     _globalSetVars=self._CHEETAH__globalSetVars)
                # Set the inner template filters to the initial filter of the
                # outer template:
                # this is the only really safe way to use
                # filter='WebSafe'.
                nestedTemplate._CHEETAH__initialFilter = self._CHEETAH__initialFilter
                nestedTemplate._CHEETAH__currentFilter = self._CHEETAH__initialFilter  
                self._CHEETAH__cheetahIncludes[_includeID] = nestedTemplate
            else:
                if includeFrom == 'file':
                    path = self.serverSidePath(srcArg)
                    self._CHEETAH__cheetahIncludes[_includeID] = self.getFileContents(path)
                else:
                    self._CHEETAH__cheetahIncludes[_includeID] = srcArg
        ##
        if not raw:
            self._CHEETAH__cheetahIncludes[_includeID].respond(trans)
        else:
            trans.response().write(self._CHEETAH__cheetahIncludes[_includeID])

    def _getTemplateAPIClassForIncludeDirectiveCompilation(self, source, file):
        """Returns the subclass of Template which should be used to compile
        #include directives.

        This abstraction allows different compiler settings to be used in the
        included template than were used in the parent.
        """

        if issubclass(self.__class__, Template):
            return self.__class__
        else:
            return Template

    ## functions for using templates as CGI scripts
    def webInput(self, names, namesMulti=(), default='', src='f',
        defaultInt=0, defaultFloat=0.00, badInt=0, badFloat=0.00, debug=False):
        """Method for importing web transaction variables in bulk.

        This works for GET/POST fields both in Webware servlets and in CGI
        scripts, and for cookies and session variables in Webware servlets.  If
        you try to read a cookie or session variable in a CGI script, you'll get
        a RuntimeError.  'In a CGI script' here means 'not running as a Webware
        servlet'.  If the CGI environment is not properly set up, Cheetah will
        act like there's no input.

        The public method provided is:

          def webInput(self, names, namesMulti=(), default='', src='f',
            defaultInt=0, defaultFloat=0.00, badInt=0, badFloat=0.00, debug=False):

        This method places the specified GET/POST fields, cookies or session
        variables into a dictionary, which is both returned and put at the
        beginning of the searchList.  It handles:
           
            * single vs multiple values
            * conversion to integer or float for specified names
            * default values/exceptions for missing or bad values
            * printing a snapshot of all values retrieved for debugging        

        All the 'default*' and 'bad*' arguments have 'use or raise' behavior,
        meaning that if they're a subclass of Exception, they're raised.  If
        they're anything else, that value is substituted for the missing/bad
        value.


        The simplest usage is:

            #silent $webInput(['choice'])
            $choice

            dic = self.webInput(['choice'])
            write(dic['choice'])

        Both these examples retrieves the GET/POST field 'choice' and print it.
        If you leave off the'#silent', all the values would be printed too.  But
        a better way to preview the values is

            #silent $webInput(['name'], $debug=1)

        because this pretty-prints all the values inside HTML <PRE> tags.

        ** KLUDGE: 'debug' is supposed to insert into the template output, but it
        wasn't working so I changed it to a'print' statement.  So the debugging
        output will appear wherever standard output is pointed, whether at the
        terminal, in a Webware log file, or whatever. ***

        Since we didn't specify any coversions, the value is a string.  It's a
        'single' value because we specified it in 'names' rather than
        'namesMulti'. Single values work like this:
       
            * If one value is found, take it.
            * If several values are found, choose one arbitrarily and ignore the rest.
            * If no values are found, use or raise the appropriate 'default*' value.

        Multi values work like this:
            * If one value is found, put it in a list.
            * If several values are found, leave them in a list.
            * If no values are found, use the empty list ([]).  The 'default*'
              arguments are *not* consulted in this case.

        Example: assume 'days' came from a set of checkboxes or a multiple combo
        box on a form, and the user  chose'Monday', 'Tuesday' and 'Thursday'.

            #silent $webInput([], ['days'])
            The days you chose are: #slurp
            #for $day in $days
            $day #slurp
            #end for

            dic = self.webInput([], ['days'])
            write('The days you chose are: ')
            for day in dic['days']:
                write(day + ' ')

        Both these examples print:  'The days you chose are: Monday Tuesday Thursday'.

        By default, missing strings are replaced by '' and missing/bad numbers
        by zero.  (A'bad number' means the converter raised an exception for
        it, usually because of non-numeric characters in the value.)  This
        mimics Perl/PHP behavior, and simplifies coding for many applications
        where missing/bad values *should* be blank/zero.  In those relatively
        few cases where you must distinguish between empty-string/zero on the
        one hand and missing/bad on the other, change the appropriate
        'default*' and 'bad*' arguments to something like:

            * None
            * another constant value
            * $NonNumericInputError/self.NonNumericInputError
            * $ValueError/ValueError
           
        (NonNumericInputError is defined in this class and is useful for
        distinguishing between bad input vs a TypeError/ValueError thrown for
        some other rason.)

        Here's an example using multiple values to schedule newspaper
        deliveries.  'checkboxes' comes from a form with checkboxes for all the
        days of the week.  The days the user previously chose are preselected.
        The user checks/unchecks boxes as desired and presses Submit.  The value
        of 'checkboxes' is a list of checkboxes that were checked when Submit
        was pressed.  Our task now is to turn on the days the user checked, turn
        off the days he unchecked, and leave on or off the days he didn't
        change.

            dic = self.webInput([], ['dayCheckboxes'])
            wantedDays = dic['dayCheckboxes'] # The days the user checked.
            for day, on in self.getAllValues():
                if   not on and wantedDays.has_key(day):
                    self.TurnOn(day)
                    # ... Set a flag or insert a database record ...
                elif on and not wantedDays.has_key(day):
                    self.TurnOff(day)
                    # ... Unset a flag or delete a database record ...

        'source' allows you to look up the variables from a number of different
        sources:
            'f'   fields (CGI GET/POST parameters)
            'c'   cookies
            's'   session variables
            'v'   'values', meaning fields or cookies

        In many forms, you're dealing only with strings, which is why the
        'default' argument is third and the numeric arguments are banished to
        the end.  But sometimes you want automatic number conversion, so that
        you can do numeric comparisions in your templates without having to
        write a bunch of conversion/exception handling code.  Example:

            #silent $webInput(['name', 'height:int'])
            $name is $height cm tall.
            #if $height >= 300
            Wow, you're tall!
            #else
            Pshaw, you're short.
            #end if

            dic = self.webInput(['name', 'height:int'])
            name = dic[name]
            height = dic[height]
            write('%s is %s cm tall.' % (name, height))
            if height > 300:
                write('Wow, you're tall!')
            else:
                write('Pshaw, you're short.')

        To convert a value to a number, suffix ':int' or ':float' to the name.
        The method will search first for a 'height:int' variable and then for a
        'height' variable.  (It will be called 'height' in the final
        dictionary.)  If a numeric conversion fails, use or raise 'badInt' or
        'badFloat'.  Missing values work the same way as for strings, except the
        default is 'defaultInt' or 'defaultFloat' instead of 'default'.

        If a name represents an uploaded file, the entire file will be read into
        memory.  For more sophistocated file-upload handling, leave that name
        out of the list and do your own handling, or wait for
        Cheetah.Utils.UploadFileMixin.

        This only in a subclass that also inherits from Webware's Servlet or
        HTTPServlet.  Otherwise you'll get an AttributeError on 'self.request'.

        EXCEPTIONS: ValueError if 'source' is not one of the stated characters.
        TypeError if a conversion suffix is not ':int' or ':float'.

        FUTURE EXPANSION: a future version of this method may allow source
        cascading; e.g., 'vs' would look first in 'values' and then in session
        variables.

        Meta-Data
        ================================================================================
        Author: Mike Orr <iron@mso.oz.net>
        License: This software is released for unlimited distribution under the
                 terms of the MIT license.  See the LICENSE file.
        Version: $Revision: 1.186 $
        Start Date: 2002/03/17
        Last Revision Date: $Date: 2008/03/10 04:48:11 $
        """

        src = src.lower()
        isCgi = not self._CHEETAH__isControlledByWebKit
        if   isCgi and src in ('f', 'v'):
            global _formUsedByWebInput
            if _formUsedByWebInput is None:
                _formUsedByWebInput = cgi.FieldStorage()
            source, func = 'field',   _formUsedByWebInput.getvalue
        elif isCgi and src == 'c':
            raise RuntimeError("can't get cookies from a CGI script")
        elif isCgi and src == 's':
            raise RuntimeError("can't get session variables from a CGI script")
        elif isCgi and src == 'v':
            source, func = 'value',   self.request().value
        elif isCgi and src == 's':
            source, func = 'session', self.request().session().value
        elif src == 'f':
            source, func = 'field',   self.request().field
        elif src == 'c':
            source, func = 'cookie',  self.request().cookie
        elif src == 'v':
            source, func = 'value',   self.request().value
        elif src == 's':
            source, func = 'session', self.request().session().value
        else:
            raise TypeError("arg 'src' invalid")
        sources = source + 's'
        converters = {
            '': _Converter('string', None, default,      default ),
            'int': _Converter('int',     int, defaultInt,   badInt  ),
            'float': _Converter('float', float, defaultFloat, badFloat),  }
        #pprint.pprint(locals());  return {}
        dic = {} # Destination.
        for name in names:
            k, v = _lookup(name, func, False, converters)
            dic[k] = v
        for name in namesMulti:
            k, v = _lookup(name, func, True, converters)
            dic[k] = v
        # At this point, 'dic' contains all the keys/values we want to keep.
        # We could split the method into a superclass
        # method for Webware/WebwareExperimental and a subclass for Cheetah.
        # The superclass would merely 'return dic'.  The subclass would
        # 'dic = super(ThisClass, self).webInput(names, namesMulti, ...)'
        # and then the code below.
        if debug:
           print("<PRE>\n" + pprint.pformat(dic) + "\n</PRE>\n\n")
        self.searchList().insert(0, dic)
        return dic

T = Template   # Short and sweet for debugging at the >>> prompt.
Template.Reserved_SearchList = set(dir(Template))

def genParserErrorFromPythonException(source, file, generatedPyCode, exception):

    #print dir(exception)
   
    filename = isinstance(file, (str, unicode)) and file or None

    sio = StringIO.StringIO()
    traceback.print_exc(1, sio)
    formatedExc = sio.getvalue()
   
    if hasattr(exception, 'lineno'):
        pyLineno = exception.lineno
    else:
        pyLineno = int(re.search('[ \t]*File.*line (\d+)', formatedExc).group(1))
       
    lines = generatedPyCode.splitlines()
   
    prevLines = []                  # (i, content)
    for i in range(1, 4):
        if pyLineno-i <=0:
            break
        prevLines.append( (pyLineno+1-i, lines[pyLineno-i]) )
   
    nextLines = []                  # (i, content)
    for i in range(1, 4):
        if not pyLineno+i < len(lines):
            break
        nextLines.append( (pyLineno+i, lines[pyLineno+i]) )
    nextLines.reverse()
    report = 'Line|Python Code\n'
    report += '----|-------------------------------------------------------------\n'
    while prevLines:
        lineInfo = prevLines.pop()
        report += "%(row)-4d|%(line)s\n"% {'row':lineInfo[0], 'line':lineInfo[1]}

    if hasattr(exception, 'offset'):
        report += ' '*(3+(exception.offset or 0)) + '^\n'
   
    while nextLines:
        lineInfo = nextLines.pop()
        report += "%(row)-4d|%(line)s\n"% {'row':lineInfo[0], 'line':lineInfo[1]}
   
   
    message = [
        "Error in the Python code which Cheetah generated for this template:",
        '='*80,
        '',
        str(exception),
        '',                            
        report,
        '='*80,
        ]
    cheetahPosMatch = re.search('line (\d+), col (\d+)', formatedExc)
    if cheetahPosMatch:
        lineno = int(cheetahPosMatch.group(1))
        col = int(cheetahPosMatch.group(2))
        #if hasattr(exception, 'offset'):
        #    col = exception.offset
        message.append('\nHere is the corresponding Cheetah code:\n')
    else:
        lineno = None
        col = None
        cheetahPosMatch = re.search('line (\d+), col (\d+)',
                                    '\n'.join(lines[max(pyLineno-2, 0):]))
        if cheetahPosMatch:
            lineno = int(cheetahPosMatch.group(1))
            col = int(cheetahPosMatch.group(2))
            message.append('\nHere is the corresponding Cheetah code.')
            message.append('** I had to guess the line & column numbers,'
                           ' so they are probably incorrect:\n')

   
    message = '\n'.join(message)
    reader = SourceReader(source, filename=filename)
    return ParseError(reader, message, lineno=lineno, col=col)
   

# vim: shiftwidth=4 tabstop=4 expandtab